Habitat: Forest types include evergreen, mixed evergreen and deciduous. Terrain is hilly and low with extensive areas of flatlands in the east and south at an altitude of 150 – 300 m. The Xe Kong plains in the east are dissected by three main rivers – the Xe Pian, Xe Khampho

and near the northern and eastern perimeters, the Xe Kong. It contains numerous mainly seasonal wetlands. Drainage is largely south to Cambodia and north to the northern wetlands.

Access: The main access is by Road No. 13. South of Pakse at Km. 48, Route No. 6 heads east along the northern boundary of the NBCA, and then branches to several villages.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

Name

Xe Pian; also spelt Xe Piane. Abbreviated: XPN

Status

Established by PM Decree 164, 29 October 1993

Location

Latitude: 13 ° 55' - 14 ° 47'N
Longitude: 105 ° 54' - 106 ° 29'E

Map Sheets

Scale I: 50,000 

6238 III

6238 II

6137 I

6237 IV

6237 I

6137 II

6237 III

6237 II

Scale I: 100,000

D 48 - 44

D 48 - 45

D 48 - 56

D 48 - 57

D 48 - 68

D 48 - 69

Scale I: 250,000

ND 48 - 7

Scale I: 1,000,000

D 48

Provinces

Champassak
Attapeu

Districts

Phathoumphon [Champassak]
Kong [Champassak]
Sanamxai [Attapeu]

Perimeter

» 360 km (estimation)

Boundary

The eastern boundary of Xe Pian NBCA follows for some 16 km the old provincial border between Champasak and Attapeu provinces, starting at the point, where route No. 6 running from Pathoumphon to Attapeu crosses this border up to the Cambodian border. It then follows the Cambodian border for about 143 km to the southwest, the first 33 km along the Xe Kong river and then crossing the hills and forests till it reaches the eastern peak of the Say Phou Kiou Mountains .

The southern boundary follows the road running from the Cambodian border through Ban Xot to Ban Hat till it reaches the stream Houay Nian. Here the border turns in northwestern direction till the western edge of Phou Mailai, where it takes an almost straight northern direction running for approximately 95 km parallel to route No. 13 in a distance of 1 to 4 km.

In the north the border follows road No. 6 passing through the villages Ban Kele and Ban Phonngam. Here it turns straight eastwards following first the rivers Houay Phapha, Houay Tauang and Xe Kampho, and then the road No.6 till it meets the old provincial border.

Area

2.400 km 2 (as decreed)
2.665 km 2 (Ref. Berkmüller et al. 1995)
3.418 km 2 (calculated by the Forest Cover Monitoring Project MRC/GTZ)

Proposed
Extensions or
Excisions

Access

The main access is by road No. 13 running from China to Cambodia . South of Pakse at Km. 48 route No. 6 crosses, running east along the northern boundary of the NBCA. It branches to several villages near the northern and eastern perimeters.
Another road runs along the southern NBCA boundary.
A well trodden foot trail traverses the area north to south and across the Cambodian border.

Stakeholder
Villages &
Population

Due to lack of information and the fact that the Land and Forest Allocation has not yet been implemented in most of the area, it is only possible to distinguish three types of villages with respect to their location and NBCA - resource use patterns:

1.Villages situated inside Xe Pian NBCA

2.Villages situated outside Xe Pian NBCA with use of agricultural land and other resources inside the NBCA

3.Villages situated outside Xe Pian NBCA with resource use other than land use inside the NBCA.

The population data were collected by the State Planning Committee of the National Statistical Centre for the National Population Census 1995.

 District

I

II

III

Total number of persons

Vill.

Pers.

Vill.

Pers.

Vill.

Pers.

Pathoumphon

4

1.256

7

3.731

16

7.700

12.687

Kong

6

3.677

11

6.500

10.177

Sanamxai

7

2.430

7

1.540

3.970

Total

11

3.686

20

8.948

27

14.200

26.834

Principal Local
Resource
Uses

Ethnic
Composition

District

EthnicGroup   

I  

II  

III  

Total number of persons

Vill.

Pers.

Vill.

Pers.

Vill.

Pers.

Pathoum- phon

Lao Loum

3

1.107

7

3.731

14

7.336

12.174

Lavae

1

131

-

-

2

254

385

Ngae

-

-

-

-

-

86

86

Kong

Lao Loum

-

-

6

3.677

11

6.450

10.127

    Sanamxai        

Laven

5

1.518

4

814

-

-

2.332

Lao Loum

2

912

2

366

-

-

1.278

Ta-Oy

-

-

1

230

-

-

230

Lavae

-

-

-

97

-

-

97

Oey

-

-

-

33

-

-

33

 

2. BRIEF HISTORY

 

History of present project

Since October 1996, the Forest Management and Conservation Programme (FOMACOP), a joint undertaking of the Government of Lao PDR (GoL), the International Development Association (IDA) of the World Bank (WB), the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), and the Government of Finland through FINNIDA, has been assisting the Lao government in the Management of Xe Pian NBCA.

3. ECOLOGY

Physical
Features

The terrain is hilly and low with extensive areas of flat lands in the east and south at an altitude of 150 - 300 m asl with some higher mountainous up to 84 m asl in the central main block.

The Xe Kong plains in the east are dissected by three main rivers - the Xe Pian, Xe Khampho and Xe Kong and contains numerous mainly seasonal wetlands. Drainage is largely south to Cambodia and north to the northern wetlands.

Elevation

between 150 and 300 m asl with two higher mountains of and 844 m asl.  

Climate

Xe Pian NBCA lays in the Southeast Asia monsoon climate. During the winter (November - February), when the sun is to the south of the equator the climate is under the influence of the cold continental high pressure region over China . The winds are clockwise around the high and come from the northeast over Southeast Asia . This is the Northeast Monsoon, characterized by cold dry air and infrequent light rain.

For the summer (May - August), the sun is to the north of the equator and heats the land mass beneath to a degree that causes an extensive low pressure region called Intertropical Convergence Zone and the Monsoon Trough. warm winds from the southwest carry moisture from the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand to the part of the trough in the Lao PDR region where vertical convection causes rainfall, large amounts during the height of the monsoon season. This is the Southwest Monsoon. The air is warm, and humidity high.

Main Forest Types

This calculation was realized by the Forest Cover Monitoring Project (FCMP) MRC / GTZ. It is based on interpretation of 1996/97 Landsat TM with the NBCA boundaries as shown on topographical maps 1:100,000 provided by the FOMACOP project. Verification with the original documents has not taken place. Therefore the data might be only approximate.

Forest Code

Area / ha

% of total Area

Evergreen / Mixed, Continuous Cover, High Cover Density (11, 17)

144.688

42,2

Evergreen / Mixed, Continuous Cover, Medium Cover Density (12, 18)

116.121

33,9

Evergreen / Mixed, Mosaic (13, 19)

12.427

3,7

Deciduous Continuous Cover (20)

49.466

14,5

Deciduous Mosaic (22)

6.918

2,1

Evergreen Wood and Shrubland (61, 63, 65)

1.856

0,6

Grassland (62)

453

0,1

Dry Wood and Shrubland (64)

3.264

0,9

Mosaic of Cropping (81, 82)

2.075

0,7

Agricultural Land (91)

3.765

1,1

Wetland (97)

835

0,2

Grand Total

341.870

100,0

Other
Habitat
Features

Habitats which are known to have a special value from the point of view of supporting wildlife and which are regarded as ecologically sensitive sites include:

•Mineral Licks
There are at least 15 sites in Xe Pian which are said by local people to be very important for wildlife, especially large mammals, some primates and some birds, particularly large water birds. The presence of salt licks strongly influences mammal movements and the focus of hunting

•Wetlands
There is a relatively high abundance of wetlands including perennial and seasonal ponds, peat swamps and perennial streams. The relatively unmodified vegetation communities surrounding many of these wetlands and extensive riparian forest present in Xe Pian also provide valuable wildlife habitat.

Wetlands and associated vegetation play a crucial role in determining the distribution and seasonal movements of key species of mammals and water birds.

Recorded
Vertebrates

Vertebrate Class

No. of Species

Key Species

Mammals

39

25

Birds

?

51

Reptiles

44

?

Amphibians

21

?

Fish

176

?

4. EVALUATION
Principal Contributions to the NBCA System

Biodiversity
Values

Biodiversity values of Xe Pian place it among the top 3 protected areas in Lao PDR and among the top 10 in Southeast Asia / Indochina . No other protected area in Lao PDR closely resembles Xe Pian in terms of its assemblage of habitats and key species.

  • Mammals

At least 22 mammal key species are present in Xe Pian. 3 of these are of "Acute National Conservation Priority" including:

  • Tiger
  • Banteng
  • Irrawaddy Dolphin

8 mammal key species are of "High National Conservation Priority" including:

  • Asian Elephant
  • Gaur
  • Sun Bear
  • Asiatic Black Bear
  • Dhole
  • Sunda Pangolin
  • Smooth Coated Otter
  • Yellow-checked Crested Gibbon

Xe Pian is one of only 2 protected areas in Lao PDR which has been confirmed to contain the 4 key large mammal species:

  • Tiger
  • Elephant
  • Gaur
  • Banteng

The Xe Pian - Dong Hua Sao NBCA gibbon population is of major global conservation significance.

  • Birds

Xe Pian has 51 key species of birds - the highest number recorded for any current or proposed NBCA. Seven of these species have not been recorded from any other protected area in Lao PDR.

Species of "Acute National Conservation Priority" include:

  • Giant Ibis
  • Black Ibis
  • Sarus Crane
  • White - winged Duck
  • White rumped Vulture
  • Long billed Vulture
  • Red Headed Vulture

Species of "High National Conservation Priority" include:

  • Woolly - necked Stork
  • Lesser Adjutant
  • River Tern
  • Masked Finfoot
  • Green Peafowl
  • Great Hornbill
  • Wreathed Hornbill

Xe Pian is vitally important for the conservation of large water birds.

  • The NBCA is globally important for the conservation of Giant and Black Ibis.
  • It is one of only 2 areas in the country where Sarus Crane and Masked Finfoot have been recorded recently and where viable populations of Lesser Adjutant are found.
  • It is regionally important for the conservation of Woolly - necked Stork.

Xe Pian is regionally important for the conservation of Green Peafowl and 3 species of Vulture.

Xe Pian is a stronghold for a range of larger ground birds like pheasants, partridges, jungle fowl and pittas, including the key species of Siamese Fireback, Blue rumped Pitta and Bar Bellied Pitta.

  • Reptiles

The Siamese crocodile population found inside and just outside the northern boundary of Xe Pian is of global conservation significance.

Xe Pian contains populations of 2 key species of turtle:

  • Asiatic Soft-shell Turtle
  • Asian Giant Soft-shell Turtle
  • Vegetation

Xe Pian contains a large area of relatively undisturbed forest that is particularly important for supporting wide-ranging large mammal species and some bird species.

Watershed
Values

Three major watersheds:

  1. Northeastern part of Xe Pian NBCA, encompassing Xe Pian river, which enters into the Xe Kong, and its main tributary Xe Khampho. Xe Khampho itself has a lot of tributaries originating in Xe Pian NBCA the biggest of which is the Huoay Tauang.
  2. Western part of Xe Pian NBCA, where many small streams originate, which run westwards to the Mekong .
  3. In the south there is the watershed of the Huoay Kaliang, where we find the highest biodiversity with respect to big mammals like Gaur, Banteng, Kouprey and Elephant, as well as birds like Green Peafowl and Giant Ibis.

Security
Values

Cultural
Values

  • Rural Lao Loum Culture
  • Elephant mahout culture in northern villages
  • Phou Asa temple site and related historic and cultural sites near Ban Kiatngong
  • Carved figures in river bed rock at Ban Kasee

Recreation
and Tourism
Values

Principal
Threats

  • Destruction of the main wetland of Xe Pian NBCA at Ban Kiatngong, Pathoumphon District through the establishment of a fertilizer plant to extract peat (This activity is already being done in wetlands in nearby areas, and for the wetland of Ban Kiatngong contracts and conditions have already been negotiated)
  • Construction and operation of the Xe Nam Noy - Xe Pian Hydropower Plant
  • International animal trade encouraging the poaching of animals from the NBCA
  • Hunting for consumption and local trade
  • Unsustainable resource use, e.g. over-harvesting of rattan
  • Upgraded road on the north side of the NBCA leading to increased unsustainable resource use in some areas
  • High rates of human population growth causing further clearings for crops
  • Concentration of human activities in ecologically sensitive sites such as wetlands and river banks
  • Agricultural activities: paddy fields, hai, livestock grazing, fire
  • General disturbance to habitats and wildlife by human activities
  • Local population is missing knowledge about the threatened status of some species
  • Local population is not informed about wildlife protection laws
  • Inadequate and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources
  • General poverty and food deficiency

Reasons for
Proposed
Extensions or
Excisions

5. CURRENT MANAGEMENT

Contact

Thassaphone Panexayasatk
Manager of Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area Forest Management and Conservation Programme (FOMACOP)
National Biodiversity Conservation Areas Management Sub-Programme
Pakse, Champassak Province , Lao PDR; Tel. / Fax: 031 - 213 589

Staffing

Staff is from the Province Agriculture and Forestry Office (PAFO) and the District Agriculture and Forestry Office (DAFO).

A Volunteer (VSA) started as Conservation Management and Operations Advisor in February 1998.

Province

District

Men

Women

Total

Champasak

6 *

1

7

Champasak

Pathoumphon

1

1

Champasak

Kong

4

4

Attapeu

2 *  

2

Total

13

1

14

* Additionally 4 short term staff * * Additionally 2 vacancies

Organization

Buildings

  • Provincial offices in Pakse and Attapeu
  • Field stations including offices and dormitories in Road No. 13, Km 48 ( Champasak Province , Pathoumphon District), Ban Hatxaykhoun ( Champasak Province , Kong District ) and Sanamsay ( Attapeu Province , Sanamsay District)

Equipment

  • Two 4WD vehicles
  • Seven motorbikes

Financial
Support &
Training

Current
Management
Priorities

  • Training of staff
  • Development of procedures for:
  1. Patrolling
  2. Monitoring
  3. Participatory management of natural resources by the local villagers

Other
Management
Opportunities

  • Community based Ecotourism
    Potential activities include:
  • Combination of trekking, elephant riding and canoeing adventures
  • Elephant rides to cultural sites at Ban Kiatngong
  • Canoeing / boat trips on Xe Pian and Xe Kong rivers
  • Bird watching tours
  • Corridor linkages with other NBCAs
    Establishment of proposed new protected areas Xe Khampho, Bolaven Southwest, Bolaven Northeast and Phou Kathong would enhance the chances of the long term survival of a number of important wildlife species in Xe Pian, especially of the wide ranging, large mammal species.
  • Transboundary linkages 

Xe Pian provides the opportunity to establish transboundary conservation linkages with protected areas in Cambodia

  • Co-management of the protected Area with local communities
  • Xe Pian NBCA provides an opportunity to develop and demonstrate co - management approaches of protected area management in Lao PDR.
  • Management staff has already identified a number of key villages where co-management is most likely to succeed.
  • Some of these villages have elements of traditional resource management systems and show an interest in managing their resources sustainable.
  • The development of successful co - management with communities in Xe Pian will potentially enhance NBCA management in the following ways:
  1. sharing of local knowledge of wildlife and habitats with NBCA staff for use in biodiversity conservation management
  2. sustainable use of natural resources
  3. protection of biodiversity values
  4. The presence of communities involved and benefiting from the co-management of the area is more likely to deter outsiders from migrating into the NBCA and from using local resources in an unsustainable way.
  5. The regular presence of local people throughout most of the NBCA provides very effective support for protected area surveillance and law enforcement. Without this support it would be extremely difficult or impossible for government staff to police a protected area as large and as remote as Xe Pian NBCA.
  • Research
    Xe Pian provides a range of scientific research opportunities, which largely arise from the richness of the biological communities, and the existence of possibly viable populations of wide - ranging mammal and bird species in relatively unmodified habitats

Other Relevant
Project
Intiatives

Development Activities implemented by the Forest Management and Conservation Programme (FOMACOP)

  • Installation of three water pumps in Ban Phonvisai, Kong Distric
  • Excavation of a pond in Ban Naseuk, Kong District (for fishes)

Other project initiatives in the area:

- World Vision : Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Area Development, Health, Humanitarian, Disaster Preparedness and Relief, (Pathoumphon District)

- Association of Earth Island : Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Area Development ( Kong District )

- Forages for Smallholders Project : Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Human Resource Development ( Kong District )

- CIDSE : Area Development, Natural Resources ( Kong District )

- Medicins sans Frontieres : Health ( Kong District )

  • Damien Foundation Belgium : Health (Sanamsay District) 

Anon. (1997). Rapid and Participatory Biodiversity Assessments (BIORAP) in Xe Piane NBCA. Final Report, WWF - Thailand Project Office

Austin, A. (1997). A mammal survey of XP NBCA, Laos PDR. Report to WWF

Caffery, B. (1999). Conservation and Development . Final report of the period of consultancy from 8.9.1997 to 11.6.1999. FOMACOP (76 pp.)

Centre for Protected Area and Watershed Management (1996). Xe Pian NBCA: Socio - Economic

Survey of Villages in and around the NBCA, Summary of Statistics for the Villages Ban Xot,

Ban Phonvisai, Ban Kiatngong, Ban Kaelaemai, Ban Nongping, Ban Taong, Ban Tavang, Ban Nonghin, Ban Nongkae, Ban Phonsaat, Ban Sompoy

Cox, R., Laurie, A. and Woodford, M. (1992 ). Report of the Results of Four Field Surveys for Kouprey, Bos sauveli , in Vietnam and Lao PDR . Kouprey Conservation Trust.

Cox, R., Sivannaving, S. and Khamphay, L. (1991). Report of a Survey for Kouprey and other Wild Cattle in the Southern Lao PDR, Provinces of Champassak and Attapeu.

Unpublished report to the Kouprey Conservation Trust.

Duckworth, J. W., Evans, T. and Timmins , R. J. (1994). A Wildlife and Habitat Survey of Xe Pian Proposed Protected Area, Champasak, Laos . Draft report to the Protected Areas and Wildlife Division of the National Office for Nature Conservation and Watershed Management, Lao - Swedish Forestry Cooperation Programme, Vientiane, Laos (70 pp.).

Evans, T. D. and Timmins , R. J. (1994). The Status of Green Peafowl in Laos . Forktail 11: 11 - 32.

Falke, M. (1998). The Geological Conditions of Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area, Champasak and Attapeu Provinces .Unpublished report (4 pp.)

Lambert, F. (1997). Ornithological considerations in management of Xe Piane NBCA . Report to WWF for Lao PDR / GEF NBCA Project (14 pp.).

National Statistical Centre, State Planning Committee (1999). Population Census Results 1995, Champassak Province , Districts: Phathoumphon and Kong, and Attapeu Province : District: Sanamxai (10 pp.). (These data, which are available normally only on diskette, have been printed out for Xe Piane NBCA).

Wagenbreth, I. (1999). Demography of Xe Piane National Biodiversity Conservation Area.

Unpublished Report (14 pp.)